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This is due to the fact that any painful irritation is inevitably associated with the excitation of various sensory pathways. It is impossible to injure the skin surface without the simultaneous excitation of tactile receptors at the site of injury. A person feels pain at the point in the body where these receptors are damaged. The exact localization of pain sensations is difficult with inflammatory lesions of the nerve trunks, when pain can be felt in all organs innervated from this nerve trunk. When the nerve trunks are injured, a burning painful sensation occurs — causalgia. Pain also tends to radiate widely to areas not innervated by the affected nerve. Numerous diseases are characterized by pain, which indicates the presence and localization of the process - the so-called symptomatic pain. At the place of occurrence, two types of symptomatic pain are distinguished.

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cialis 20The nature of pain depends on the characteristics of the organ and the strength of the destructive effect. For example, pain with a stomach ulcer differs significantly from pain with renal colic, pain with a skin injury is different from a headache. Consequently, the differences in the sensation of pain are associated not so much with the features of the spread of pain excitement in the periphery, but with the features of its coverage and distribution over various structures of the central nervous system. However, no matter how widely painful excitement covers the nervous system, a person can always localize it, indicate the place where pain first arose.

 

In the formation of pain reactions of the body, a significant role is played by the reticular formation (see) of the trunk and midbrain, which has broad functional connections with other structures of the brain and with extensive areas of its cortex. This determines the greater severity of the emotional and motor manifestations of the body when a feeling of pain occurs. Reducing or suppressing the activity of the reticular formation with the help of narcotic substances leads to a weakening of the sensation of pain.

The pain occurs when sensitive nerve endings, embedded in organs and tissues, are irritated. These include special non-encapsulated receptor formations, representing the branching of nerve endings, the excitation from which is transmitted to the central nervous system through two types of nerve fibers: myelin-free nerve fibers conduct pain impulses at a speed of 1-2 m / sec, myelin nerve fibers - at a speed of 10- 45 m / sec. At the level of the spinal cord, the main route of pain excitement in the central nervous system is the spino-thalamic tract, the fibers of which end in the ventral nuclei of the thalamus, which is considered the main structure that forms pain.

The feeling of pain occurs when the normal course of physiological processes in the body is disturbed, due to the influence of factors harmful to it. The appearance of pain signals the need to eliminate or reduce the effect of the damaging factor. Subjectively, a person perceives pain as a painful feeling, an oppressive feeling. Objectively, pain is accompanied by a number of vegetative reactions (dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, pallor of the skin of the face, etc.), a characteristic posture and movements aimed at reducing pain.